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The French chemist Lavoisier discovered for the first time that solitaire is pure carbon. Lavoisier burned the solitaire and saw that the combustion gas was only carbon dioxide, the solitaire was carbon.

Solitaire is known as crystal mineral. It is rare and unique because of its chemical nature. Certain small chemical elements in a solitaire of pure carbon can affect its color and shape.
One of the important issue to consider while creating solitaires is the creation of a particular temperature and pressure. The most appropriate values ​​in this formation are close to the core of the world. Solitaires usually crystallize with an excessively high pressure and only high temperatures in the upper layers of the earth's surface.
Less than 30% of gem quality, polished and jeweled.
Today more than 70% are used for industrial purposes.
Solitaires are extracted from many areas of the world. Today, 7 producing countries has part for 80% of total rough diamond production; Bostvana, Russia, South Africa, Angola, Namibia, Australia and Zaire. In 2000, the estimated total production of rough diamonds is worldwide 120 million carats. About 50% of the grinding and polishing processes  incurred losses. When 120 million rough diamonds were originally processed, only 18 million carats were brought to the open market as a polished gemstone. The solitaire formed in nature is at least 990 million years old. The youngest solitaire is 1 billion years old and comes from Botswana. The oldest solitaire is 3.3 billion years old and comes from South Africa. To determine the age of the solitary, a different method is used instead of the carbon test used in many materials; the test of radioactive aging.
The two most famous Cullinan and Cullinan 2 solitaires are 530.20 carats after processing. Turkey 1 is one of Turkey's most famous solitaire. The solitaire that we know as  spoonmaker's diamond is Turkey 2 Solitaire. Kuh – i Nur is one of the most important solitaires and is located in the Royal Treasury of England.
It is associated with diamondiferous deposits that represent the infrastructure systems of the diamond mine. The new methods vary depending on the geographical conditions and the location of the solitaire pieces. 
We can separate the solitaire mines into two parts: 
Main mines: Kimberlit or Lamproit chimneys 
Secondary mines: rivers, beaches, seas